There are several types of rubber based erasers:
1. Erasers with a minimum content of abrasive fillers and fillers that make the eraser material more elastic; have a light color and are designed for quick and high-quality removal of traces of graphite from the working surface. The principle of deleting written lines consists in sticking graphite to an eraser and at the same time cleaning the latter with friction against the surface. Thanks to these properties of the eraser, its erasing surface is constantly updated. If the eraser is correctly matched to the paper used, the work surface remains without or with minimal damage.
2. Erasers with a lower content of softening fillers and a small proportion of abrasive substances, as well as a large percentage of other fillers and dyes. These erasers are designed for everyday use and remove traces of ordinary stationery writing accessories.
3. Relatively hard erasers with a large proportion of abrasives. Sandpaper or pumice stone (crushed volcanic glass) is used as abrasives. The main reason for using these materials is their ability to rub off the top layer of paper together with a line written with ink or a ballpoint pen paste, and the eraser surface is partially erased along with them. Care should be taken when using these erasers; when erasing on low-quality paper, they can wear it down to holes.
4. Special erasers consisting only of rubber and a large amount of vegetable oil, without abrasive substances and other fillers. Curing during their production is relatively small. The result is a very sticky and easily deformable eraser. Due to the strong stickiness of the eraser, a weakly adhering upper layer of the working surface adheres well to it. This property is used when drawing with charcoal or dry chalk. Adhesion to paper in these materials is weaker than to an eraser. The glued mark remains on the eraser and thereby gradually spoils it.
Rubber erasers become firmer over time. The curing process is accelerated if the product is in the open air or in the sun, therefore rubber erasers should be stored in the package. If storage conditions are respected, erasers retain their properties for many years.
This group includes synthetic rubber, vinyl or plastic erasers. Sometimes they are called “plastic” or “plastic.” They, as a rule, have a decorative form, are produced in various colors and are distinguished by a picture printed on them – a picture.
These erasers practically do not cause static electricity, which significantly reduces the adhesion of the particles of the eraser to the working surface. Usually, when erasing from vinyl erasers, wide, long particles are separated, which reduces the number of movements, and the particles themselves are easily wiped off the working surface. Unlike rubber vinyl erasers do not deteriorate over the years.
Some types of vinyl erasers contain microcapsules with solvents that burst in the process of erasing, and the protruding solvent acts on the line, weakening the coloring matter. In combination with the erasable properties of the vinyl material, the solvent provides a quick, clean erasure without damaging the work surface.
Mechanical erasers are used for the final removal of lines and traces from the working surface through the use of abrasive materials and scrapers. In such cases, it must be remembered that not only lines are removed, but also part of the surface.
The mechanical fiberglass eraser at the end has a cluster of narrow glass fibers that are parallel to the inside of the sleeve, ensuring their rigidity. When the fibers are abraded, the moving mechanism feeds a new part of the fibers. The working part of the fibers of this type of eraser should have a short length. Such an eraser is suitable for removing ink lines (of any age) and even rust spots from a car. Very abrasive and requires careful use.
Knife for correction is used for scraping lines and traces that have a greater thickness. The erasure technique consists in scraping the line with a knife blade, located perpendicular to the working surface.